Developing a new Bachelor of Nursing Course responsive to Australia’s culturally diverse community


The purpose of this article is to discuss issues surrounding the development of a new Bachelor of Nursing course for the University of Notre Dame, Sydney, Australia. In particular, the focus of the discussion is on the factors that influenced the development of learning outcomes that would enable student nurses the opportunity to develop the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to advance both personally and professionally a cultural awareness of self and others appropriate for the Australian context and delivery of culturally congruent and safe nursing care.


Lynette M Raymond
Clinical Coordinator; Senior Lecturer, University of Notre Dame, Sydney NSW


Andrews M and Boyle J (2003) Transcultural Concepts in Nursing Care 4th edn, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, USA.

ANMC (2006) National Competency Standards for the Registered Nurse 4th edn, ANMC, Canberra, ACT. Retrieved 26 February 2006 from http://www.anmc.org.au/professional_standards/index.php.

Campinha-Bacote J (2002) The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care, Journal of Transcultural Nursing 13: 181–184.

Commonwealth of Australia (2006) Corporate Plan 2006–2009: Better health, better care, better life, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, ACT. Retrieved 26 March 2007 from http://www.health.gov.au/internet/wcms/publishing.nsf/content/corporateplan.

Commonwealth of Australia (2004) A National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health and Social and Emotional Well-being 2004–2009, Social Health Reference Group for National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Council and National Mental Health Working Group, Canberra, ACT.

Commonwealth of Australia (2003) Multicultural Australia: United in diversity. Updating the 1999 new agenda for multicultural Australia: Strategic directions for 2003-2006, Canberra, ACT.

Commonwealth of Australia (1999) Australian Multiculturalism for a New Century: Towards inclusiveness, National Multicultural Advisory Council, Canberra, ACT.

Couzos S and Murray R (eds) (2008) Aboriginal Primary Health Care. An evidenced-based approach 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, Victoria.

Daly J, Speedy S and Jackson D (eds) (2005) Contexts of Nursing 2nd edn, MacLennan and Petty, Sydney.

Department of Education Science and Training (2002) National Review of Nursing Education, Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST), Canberra ACT. Retrieved April 24 2003, from www.dest.au/higherednursing/pubs/multi-cultural

Eckermann A, Dowd T, Martin M, Nixon L, Gray R and Chong E (2005) Binanj Goonj: Bridging cultures in Aboriginal health 2nd edn, University of New England Press, Armidale NSW.

Germov J (ed) (2005) Second Opinion. An Introduction to Health Sociology 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Goold S (2004) The future is now – live it, ACORN 17: 9–11.

Gray D (2006) Health Sociology: An Australian perspective, Pearson Prentice Hall, Australia.

Grbich C (ed) (2005) Health in Australia: Sociological concepts and issues 3rd edn, Pearson Longman, Sydney.

Giger JN and Davidhizar R (2004) Transcultural Nursing Assessment and Intervention 4th edn, Mosby, St Louis, Missouri.

Jirwe M, Gerrish K and Enami A (2006) The theoretical framework of cultural competence, The Journal of Multicultural Nursing and Health 12: 6–16.

Kanitsaki O (2003) Transcultural nursing and challenging the status quo, Contemporary Nurse 15: V–X.

Kelly J (2006) Is it Aboriginal friendly? Searching for ways of working in research and practice that support Aboriginal women, Contemporary Nurse 22: 317–326.

Liamputtong R (ed) (1994) Asian mother, Australian birth, pregnancy, childbirth and childrearing. The Asian experience in an English speaking country, Ausmed Publications, Melbourne.

Leininger M (ed) (1978) Transcultural Nursing Concepts, Theories and Practices. Greyden Press, Columbus, Ohio.

Leininger M and McFarland M (eds) (2002) Transcultural Nursing Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Leininger M (2002) The theory of culture care and ethnonursing research method. In M Leininger and M McFarland (eds) (2002) Transcultural Nursing Concepts Theories, Research and Practice, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

McMurray A (2007) Community Health and Wellness. A socioecological approach 3rd edn, Elsevier, Australia.

Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (2007) National Protocols for Higher Education Approval Processes. MCEETYA, Canberra ACT. Retrieved 28 March 2008 from http://www.mceetya.edu.au/mceetya/national-protocols-for-higher-education-mainpage,15212.html.

Munoz C and Luckmann J (2008) Transcultural Communication in Nursing 2nd edn, Thomson Delmar Learning, Australia.

Nahas V and Amasheh N (1999) Culture care meanings and experiences of postpartum depression among Jordian Australian women: A transcultural study, Journal of Transcultural Nursing 10: 37–45.

NSW Department of Health (2007) Future Directions for Health in NSW – Towards 2025: Fit for the future, NSW Department of Health, North Sydney NSW. Retrieved 26 March 2007 from http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/pubs/2007/pdf/future_directions.pdf.

NSW Department of Health (2005) NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Strategy Evaluation Final Report 2005, NSW Department of Health, North Sydney NSW.

NSW Department of Health (2003) NSW Health Aboriginal Health Impact Statement and Guidelines, NSW Department of Health, North Sydney NSW.

NSW Health Department and the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council of NSW (2001) NSW Aboriginal Health Promotion Program: Directions paper. Gladesville NSW: Better Health Centre Publications Warehouse.

Nurses and Midwives Board of New South Wales (2005a) NMB: Update 2: 14–18.

Nurses and Midwives Board of New South Wales (2005b) Retrieved 7/28/2005 http://www.nmb.nsw.gov.au/ne_inspections.htm.

O’Donoghue L (1999). Towards a culture of improving Indigenous health in Australia. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 7, 64–69.

O’Connor-Flemming M and Parker E (2001) Health Promotion: Principles and practice in the Australian Context. Allen & Unwin, NSW.

Omeri A, Lennings C and Raymond L (2005) Beyond asylum: Implications for nursing and health care delivery for Afghan refugees in Australia. Journal of Transcultural Nursing 17: 1–31.

Omeri A (2003) Meeting diversity challenges: Pathway of ‘advanced’ transcultural nursing practice in Australia, Contemporary Nurse 15: 175–187.

Omeri A (2002) Reflections on Australia and transcultural nursing in the new Millennium, in Leininger M and McFarland M (eds) (2002) Transcultural Nursing Concepts, Theories, Research and Practice 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Omeri A and Cameron-Traub E (eds) (1996) Transcultural Nursing Care in Multicultural Australia, Royal College of Nursing, Australia, ACT.

Omeri A (1996) Transcultural nursing care values, beliefs and practices of Iranian immigrants in New South Wales Australia. PhD (Nursing), Faculty of Nursing, NSW Australia, The University of Sydney.

Papps E (2005) Cultural safety: daring to be different, In Wepa D (ed) Cultural Safety in Aotearoa New Zealand, Pearson Education, New Zealand.

Purnell L and Paulanka B (2003) Transcultural Health Care. A culturally competent approach 2nd edn, FA Davis Company, Philadelphia USA.

Raphael B and Malak A (eds) (2001) Diversity and Mental Health in Challenging Times. Transcultural Mental Health Centre, Parramatta NSW.

Ramsden I (2005) Towards cultural safety, in Wepa D (ed) Cultural Safety in Aotearoa, New Zealand, Pearson Education, New Zealand.

Raymond L (2003) 'An ethnonursing study of the culture care meanings of health and well-being for Mauritian immigrant childbearing families living in New South Wales Australia'. Unpublished doctoral thesis. Faculty of Nursing, Department of Family and Community Nursing, The University of Sydney.

Richardson F and Carryer J (2005) Teaching Cultural Safety in a New Zealand Nursing Education Program, Journal of Nursing Education 44: 201–208.

Royal College of Nursing, Australia (1998) Position Statement: Nursing practice in a culturally diverse Australian society. Council of Royal College of Nursing, Australia, Canberra ACT.

Spector R (2000) Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness 5th edn, Prentice Hall Health, Uppersaddle River NJ.

Thomson N (ed) (2003) The Health of Indigenous Australians, Oxford University Press. South Melbourne, Victoria.

Wass A (2000) Promoting Health. The primary health care approach 2nd edn. Harcourt Saunders, Sydney.


Australia, cultural competence, curriculum development, cultural safety, nurse education, transcultural nursing


PP: 17 - 22

RSS Facebook Twitter

Sign Me Up for latest release updates

*  Email Address:
    First Name:
    Last Name:
*  I am interested in:


Web Feed

Latest Articles

Special Issues

Nursing Innovation and Reform in Health Care
Volume 48/1

Issues in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Care
Volume 46/1
Summary | Contents

Supporting a Strong and Resilient Contemporary Nursing Workforce
Volume 45/1
Summary | Contents

section on Health Care with Marginalised Populations
Volume 44/1
Summary | Contents

Advances in Contemporary Health Care for Vulnerable Populations
Volume 42/2
Summary | Contents

Advances in Contemporary Community & Family Health Care (3rd edn)
Volume 41/1

Advances in Contemporary Complex Health Care: Nursing Interventions
Volume 40/2
Summary | Contents

Advances in Contemporary Community and Family Health Care (2nd edn)
Volume 40/1
Summary | Contents

Advances in Contemporary Nurse Education (2nd edn)
Volume 38/1-2

Advances in Contemporary Indigenous Health Care (2nd edn)
Volume 37/1

Advances in Contemporary Nursing: Workforce and Workplaces
Volume 36/1-2

Advances in Contemporary Modeling of Clinical Nursing Care
Volume 35/2
Summary | Contents

crossref.org - The citation linking backbone

Website by Arrowsmith Websites. Website Design Sunshine Coast, Australia.